Kufic is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script. Kufic developed around the end of the 7th century in Kufa, Iraq, from which it takes its name, and other centers. Until about the 11th century it was the main script used to copy Qur’ans. Professional copyists employed a particular form of kufic for reproducing the earliest surviving copies of the Qur’an, which were written on parchment and date from the 8th to 10th centuries.
Kufic was prevalent in manuscripts from the 8th to 10th centuries.
Kufic is commonly seen on Seljuk coins and monuments and on early Ottoman coins. Its decorative character led to its use as a decorative element in several public and domestic buildings constructed prior to the Republican period in Turkey.
The current flag of Iraq uses Kufic script to write ألله أكبر Allahu Akbar.